Lung cancer happens when cells in the lung begin to grow out of control and can then invade nearby tissues or spread throughout the body. Large collections of this out of control tissue are called tumors. Any of the tissues in the lung can become cancer; but most commonly, lung cancer comes from the lining of the bronchi. Lung cancer is not really thought of as a single disease, but rather a collection of several diseases that are characterized by the cell type that makes them up, how they behave, and how they are treated. Lung cancer is divided into two main categories:
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) - the rarer of the two types (about 20% of all lung cancers), small cell lung cancer is more aggressive than non small cell lung cancer because is grows quicker and is more likely to spread to other organs
Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) - the more common of the two types (80% of all lung cancers), non small cell lung cancer is generally slower growing than small cell lung cancer and is divided into three different types based on how the cells look that make it up- adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma
Causes lung cancer
Tobacco smoke is the primary cause of lung cancer. Although nonsmokers can get lung cancer, the risk is about 10 times greater for smokers and is also increased by the number of cigarettes smoked per day.
If you are a heavy smoker consuming more than 20 cigarettes a day, the risk of developing lung cancer is about 30 to 40 times higher than if you don't smoke.
The main reason for the substantial increase in the disease over the last 50 years has been the increase in the number of people who smoke cigarettes and the higher lever of anti-pesticide being used in the farming industries. This has resulted from the industrial production and marketing of tobacco.
The risk of lung cancer in an ex-smoker falls to the same level as a nonsmoker after about 15 years.
Symptoms of lung cancer
One fourth of all people with lung cancer have no symptoms when the cancer is diagnosed. These cancers are usually identified incidentally when a chest x-ray is performed for another reason. The other three fourths of people develop some symptoms. The symptoms are due to direct effects of the primary tumor; to effects of metastatic tumors in other parts of the body; or to malignant disturbances of hormones, blood, or other systems.
Symptoms of primary lung cancers include cough, coughing up blood, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
A new cough in a smoker or a former smoker should raise concern for lung cancer.
A cough that does not go away or gets worse over time should be evaluated by a health care provider.
Coughing up blood (hemoptysis) occurs in a significant number of people who have lung cancer. Any amount of coughed-up blood should cause alarm.
Chest pain is a symptom in about one fourth of people with lung cancer. The pain is dull, aching, and persistent and may involve other structures surrounding the lung.
Shortness of breath usually results from a blockage in part of the lung, collection of fluid around the lung (pleural effusion), or the spread of tumor through the lungs.
Wheezing or hoarseness may signal blockage or inflammation in the lungs that may go along with cancer.
Repeated respiratory infections, such as bronchitis or pneumonia, can be a sign of lung cancer.
Symptoms of metastatic lung tumors depend on the location and size. About 30-40% of people with lung cancer have some symptoms or signs of metastatic disease.
Lung cancer most often spreads to the liver, the adrenal glands, the bones, and the brain.
Metastatic lung cancer in the liver usually does not cause any symptoms, at least at the time of diagnosis.
Metastatic lung cancer in the adrenal glands also typically causes no symptoms at the time of diagnosis.
Metastasis to the bones is most common with small cell type cancers but also occurs with other lung cancer types. Lung cancer that has metastasized to the bone causes bone pain, usually in the backbone (vertebrae), the thighbones, and the ribs.
Lung cancer that spreads to the brain can cause difficulties with vision, weakness on one side of the body, and/or seizures.
Sadly, most lung cancer is diagnosed too late for curative treatment to be possible. In over half of people with lung cancer the disease has already spread (metastasised) at the time of diagnosis.
Others investigation is a chest X-ray. If a lung tumour is present, it needs to be at least a centimetre in diameter to be detectable by an ordinary X-ray. However, by the time a tumour has reached this size the original cell which became cancerous has divided (or doubled) 36 times. As death usually results after 50 such cell divisions, it is clear that lung cancer is a disease that is usually detected late in its natural course.
Others western inspection, bronchoscopy - is direct inspection of the inside of the breathing tubes with a thin fibre-optic instrument using local anaesthetic and is the best test for tumours in the main bronchi (air passages) in the of the chest.
Depending on the site of the Lung cancer, a biopsy will be obtained either by a bronchoscopy or a needle biopsy. Needle biopsy is better for Lung cancers near the periphery of the lungs (ie closer to the ribs than the of the chest), beyond the reach of the bronchoscope.
Usually, a sample of sputum - the material coughed up from the respiratory tract - will also be examined for cancer cells and this can avoid the need for biopsy.
A CT scan provides more information about how much the tumour may have spread.
There are three main types of lung cancer, based on their appearance when examined under the
microscope by a pathologist:
small cell carcinoma
squamous cell carcinoma
Lung Cancer Prevention
For those who has been smooker for more then 5 years should take our treatment for protecting them from
lung cancer and to improve their Qi lever in their lungs'.
It will maintain your lung condition and avoid lung cancer.
Breast cancer, cancer that are malignancies -- life-threatening-tumors -- that develop in one or both breasts. The interior of the female breast, which consists mostly of fatty and fibrous connective tissues, is divided into about 20 sections called lobes. Each lobe is further subdivided into a collection of lobules, which are structures that contain small milk-producing glands. These glands secrete milk into a complex system of tiny ducts. The ducts carry the milk through the breast and converge in a collecting chamber located just below the nipple. Breast cancer is either invasive (spreading) or noninvasive (generally known as in situ -- that is, confined to the site of origin). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma, an invasive cancer, penetrates the wall of a duct, and is the most common form of breast cancer, constituting about 70% of all cases. Infiltrating lobular carcinoma, an invasive cancer that has spread through the wall of a lobule, accounts for about 8% of all breast cancers. It is much more likely to appear in both breasts, often in several separate locations. Noninvasive breast cancers include ductal carcinoma in situ (also called intraductal carcinoma) and lobular carcinoma in situ and account for about 10% of all cases. These cancers are termed noninvasive because at the time of diagnosis there is no evidence of invasion through the basement membrane, a layer separating the affected cells from the underlying connective tissue, which is rich in blood vessels. Ductal carcinoma in situ is considered to be an early malignancy; if left untreated, it may sometimes progress to an invasive, infiltrating ductal breast cancer. Lobular carcinoma in situ seems to be a marker for an increased risk of cancer in both breasts. In at least 20% of these cases, invasive cancer (often of the ductal variety) eventually develops, sometimes in a different location from the original lobular carcinoma in situ.
Who Gets Breast Cancer?
Age, Gender, and Ethnicity
Acording to the US research:
Experts estimate that 175,000 cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in 1999 in US. At this time, age is the major identifiable risk factor. More than 80% of breast cancer cases occur in women over 50, and there is a one in nine chance of having breast cancer if a woman lives to 85. At 40, however, her odds are one in 217, and at 50 they are one in 50. Cancer in women younger than 30 is very rare, accounting for only 1.5% of all breast cancer cases. Native Americans and Asians have lower rates of breast cancer than whites, Hispanics, and African Americans. About 1,600 breast cancers will be diagnosed in men. The mortality rate in African Americans is twice that of whites. According to one study this higher rate is due not only to socioeconomic factors but may also reflect biologic differences. African American patients tend to have larger more aggressive cancers.
In the 1970's and before that, there were much less cases in Asia.In the late 1990's on there were more cases reported and there were reports about the insectisides being has a lot to do with cancer cases. From our research we do see some relation on the exposure to this insectisides expecially in the vegetables and fruits farming.
All these insectisides chemicals killers can be discharge out of your body with our special herbs. It takes about 10 dose per month for high risk person.
Genetic Factors and Family History
About 10% of all women with breast cancer have a family history of the disease. The mutations in genes known as BRCA1 and BRCA2 are now well-known culprits in some early-onset breast and ovarian cancers. About half of BRCA1 carriers have a chance of developing breast cancer by age 70, and according to one study, about 37% of BRCA2 carriers develop the disease. (These percentages may be higher in high-risk families.) BRCA2 and BRCA1 traits can be passed down to the daughter by either the mother or the father. Only about 0.1% of the population carries them. It should be further noted that a family history of breast cancer puts a woman at risk for the disease, even if these genetic mutations are not detected. A defective BRCA gene also sometimes appears in noninherited breast and ovarian cancer patients. Cancer may even develop if the normal BRCA1 gene (which is protective) is either underexpressed or, in some cases, appears to "hide" outside the nucleus of the cell, where it is ineffective.
Researchers have also identified other defective genes that cause breast cancer, including BRCA3, p53, and NOEY2 (which is inherited from the father). A mutant gene for the rare disorder ataxia-telangiectasia may account for many breast cancers. (The disease itself is rare, requiring two copies of the gene, but 1% of the population carries a single copy, which is enough to increase the risk for breast cancer.) Women who have this gene are also more likely to be harmed by radiation, including that from mammography.
Over-Exposure to Estrogen
Because breast tissue is highly sensitive to estrogens, the longer a women is exposed to estrogen over her lifetime, the higher the risk for breast cancer. In fact, one study reported that blood tests measuring high levels of estrogen and testosterone may eventually identify older women at increased risk for breast cancer.
Early Menstruation and Late Menopause. Women who started menstruation early (before age 12) or went through menopause late (after age 55) are at slightly higher risk, as are those who never had children or had them after the age of 30.
Pregnancy and Abortion. Pregnancy plays an odd dual role in breast cancer. It appears to increase the risk for up to 15 years following the first birth, particularly in older women, but after that women who have given birth have a lower risk than those who have not. Subsequent births do not seem to have any additional impact. Studies have detected an increased risk for breast cancer in women who have had abortions, possibly because high estrogen levels occur in the first trimester when abortions are most often performed (estrogen levels tend not to be high when a natural miscarriage occurs). The increased risk from abortion is most likely to be very small, however.
Oral Contraception. A small risk for breast cancer appears to develop in women while taking oral contraceptives and for about 10 years after stopping the Pill.
Hormone Replacement Therapy. A number of studies have indicated an increased risk for breast cancer in women taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Although studies indicate that the risk exists only with long-term therapy, one study reported that even one year of HRT could increase the chances of breast cancer. Of further concern for women taking HRT, breast tissue density increases and mammograms may miss some breast cancers. In virtually all studies, however, the real dangers for most women taking HRT are very low. Breast cancers that do occur in women taking hormone replacement therapy also tend to be smaller and less aggressive than most. Some experts argue, however, that the risk of breast cancer from HRT may be underestimated, because until recently women who took HRT tended to be at risk for osteoporosis or heart disease and so were likely to have low estrogen levels. Studies, then, may not yet be reporting the risks for women with normal or high estrogen levels who are now taking HRT to reduce menopausal symptoms or to prevent Alzheimer's disease. Many experts believe that any risk for breast cancer should be weighed against the other health benefits provided by HRT.
A history of proliferative breast disease or a typical cell growth, known as hyperplasia, is a significant risk factor for breast cancer. Benign fibroid tumors may increase risk after many years, particularly if they are complex, such as cysts or if they cause scarring.
Studies have reported mixed effects on the association between obesity and breast cancer. Some suggest that simply being overweight is not a risk factor but that excessive weight gain after menopause is. A number of studies have reported an association between being overweight as a child or young woman and a lower risk for breast cancer. (Estrogen levels are actually reduced in the presence of high fat levels in premenopausal women.) Women with heavy dense bones are at higher risk for breast cancer, since estrogen helps build bone mass. There have been reports of a link between increased height and breast cancer risk, but one controlled study of almost 10,000 women found no association at all. However, women who reached their maximum height at age 18 may have a lower breast cancer risk than women who reached their full height at 13 or younger -- again probably because they had higher levels of estrogen at an earlier age.
Exposure to Estrogen-like Chemicals. Chemicals with estrogen-like effects -- called xenoestrogens -- that are found in pesticides and other common industrial products have been suspects for the increased risk of breast cancer found in specific regions. A number of studies have found no danger to most women from two of the most common environmental estrogens -- PCBs and DDT. Other estrogen-like chemicals that have a stronger association with breast cancer include dieldrin and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Although such chemicals are very weak estrogens, one study stirred alarm by reporting that although exposure to a single weak-estrogen compound poses no risk, combinations of them result in extremely powerful estrogenic chemicals. Many women who took diethylstilbestrol (DES) to prevent miscarriage produced children with abnormal reproductive systems, and there is some indication that it increased the risk for breast cancer in their offspring.
Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields. Heavy exposure to radiation is a significant risk factor for breast cancer. Women who were treated with high doses of radiation for childhood cancers face a high risk for breast cancer in adulthood. Studies have been conflicting on increased risks from intensive exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). If any risk exists, however, it is likely to be very small.
The farming insectiside has been provent to be closely associated to all types of cancer.
Reduced Melatonin. Reduced levels of melatonin -- a powerful hormone that affects sleep and other vital functions -- has been associated with breast cancer. This might account for the higher incidence observed in flight attendants.
Each year, nearly 55,000 people in the United States learn that they have bladder cancer according to the US records. We insist to help patients with bladder cancer and their families and friends better understand this disease. We hope others will read it as well to learn more about bladder cancer.
This booklet discusses symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. It also has information to help patients cope with bladder cancer.
The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower abdomen. It stores urine, the waste that is produced when the kidneys filter the blood. The bladder has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger and smaller as urine is stored or emptied. The wall of the bladder is lined with several layers of transitional cells.
Urine passes from the two kidneys into the bladder through two tubes called ureters. Urine leaves the bladder through another tube, the urethra.
What Is Cancer?
Cancer is a group of many different diseases that have some important things in common. They all affect cells, the body's basic unit of life. To understand different types of cancer, such as bladder cancer, it is helpful to know about normal cells and what happens when they become cancerous.
The body is made up of many types of cells. Normally, cells grow and divide to produce more cells only when the body needs them. This orderly process helps keep the body healthy. Sometimes cells keep dividing when new cells are not needed. These cells form a mass of extra tissue, called a growth or tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant.
Benign tumors are not cancer. They often can be removed with 4 weeks of herbal medicine and, in most cases, they do not come back. Cells in benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Most important, benign tumors are rarely a threat to life.
Malignant tumors are cancer. Cells in malignant tumors are abnormal and divide without control or order. These cancer cells can invade and destroy the tissues around them. Also, cancer cells can break away from a malignant tumor and enter the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. This process is the way cancer spreads from the original (primary) tumor to form new tumors in other parts of the body. The spread of cancer is called metastasis. At this lever when it has just move to the lymphatic system.
Most cancers are named for the part of the body or type of cells in which they begin. About 90 percent of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas, cancers that begin in the cells lining the bladder. Cancer that is confined to the lining of the bladder is called superficial bladder cancer. After treatment, superficial bladder cancer can recurs if this happens, most often it recurs as another superficial cancer.
In some cases, cancer that begins in the transitional cells spreads through the lining of the bladder and invades the muscular wall of the bladder. This is known as invasive bladder cancer. Invasive cancer may grow through the bladder wall and spread to nearby organs.
Bladder cancer cells may also be found in the lymph nodes surrounding the bladder. If the cancer has reached these nodes, it may mean that cancer cells have spread to other lymph nodes and to distant organs, such as the lungs. The cancer cells in the new tumor are still bladder cancer cells. The new tumor is called metastatic bladder cancer rather than lung cancer because it has the same kind of abnormal cells that were found in the bladder.
Some common symptoms of bladder cancer include:
Blood in the urine (slightly rusty to deep red in color).
Pain during urination.
Frequent urination, or feeling the need to urinate without results.
When symptoms occur, they are not sure signs of bladder cancer. They may also be caused by infections, benign tumors, bladder stones, or other problems. Only a doctor can make a diagnosis. (People with symptoms like these generally see their family doctor or a urologist, a doctor who specializes in diseases of the urinary system.) It is important to see a doctor so that any illness can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible
Diagnosis and Staging:
To find the cause of symptoms, the doctor asks about the patient's medical history and does a physical exam. The physical will include a rectal or vaginal exam that allows the doctor to check for tumors that can be felt. In addition, urine samples are sent to the laboratory for testing to check for blood and cancer cells.
The doctor may use an instrument to look directly into the bladder, a procedure called cystoscopy. This procedure may be done with local or general anesthesia. The doctor inserts a thin, lighted tube (called a cystoscope) into the bladder through the urethra to examine the lining of the bladder. The doctor can remove samples of tissues through this tube. The sample is then examined under a microscope by a pathologist. The removal of tissue to look for cancer cells is called a biopsy. In many cases, performing a biopsy is the only sure way to tell whether cancer is present. If the entire cancer is removed during the biopsy, bladder cancer can be diagnosed and treated in a single procedure. A patient who needs a biopsy may want to ask the doctor some of the following questions:
Why do I need to have a biopsy?
How long will it take? Will I be awake? Will it hurt?
What side effects can I expect?
How soon will I know the results?
If I do have cancer, who will talk with me about treatment? When?
Once bladder cancer is diagnosed, the doctor will want to learn the grade of the cancer and the stage, or extent, of the disease. Grade is important because it tells how closely the cancer resembles normal tissue and suggests how fast the cancer is likely to grow. Low-grade cancers more closely resemble normal tissue and are likely to grow and spread more slowly than high-grade cancers.
Staging is a careful attempt to find out whether the cancer has spread and, if so, what parts of the body are affected. The stage of bladder cancer may be determined at the time of diagnosis, or it may be necessary to perform additional tests. Such tests may include imaging tests--CT scan, MRI, sonogram, IVP, bone scan, or chest x-ray.
What is adult primary liver cancer?
Adult primary liver cancer is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells start to grow in the tissues of the liver. The liver is one of the largest organs in the body, filling the upper right side of the abdomen and protected by the rib cage. The liver has many functions. It has an important role in making food into energy and also filters and stores blood.
People who have hepatitis B or C (viral infections of the liver) or a disease of the liver called cirrhosis are more likely than other people to get adult primary liver cancer. Primary liver cancer is different from cancer that has spread from another place in the body to the liver.
A doctor should be seen if the following symptoms appear: a hard lump just below the rib cage on the right side where the liver has swollen, discomfort in the upper abdomen on the right side, pain around the right shoulder blade, or yellowing of the skin (jaundice).
If there are symptoms, a doctor may order special x-rays, such as a computed tomographic scan or a liver scan. If a lump is seen on an x-ray, a doctor may use a needle inserted into the abdomen to remove a small amount of tissue from the liver. This procedure is called a needle biopsy, and a doctor usually will use an x-ray for guidance. The doctor will have the tissue looked at under a microscope to see if there are any cancer cells. Before the test, a patient will be given a local anesthetic (a drug that causes loss of feeling for a short period of time) in the area so that no pain is felt.
A doctor may also want to look at the liver with an instrument called a laparoscope, which is a small tube-shaped instrument with a light on the end. For this test, a small cut is made in the abdomen so that the laparoscope can be inserted. The doctor may also take a small piece of tissue (biopsy specimen) during the laparoscopy and look at it under the microscope to see if there are any cancer cells. An anesthetic will be given so no pain is felt.
A doctor may also order an examination called an angiography. During this examination, a tube (catheter) is inserted into the main blood vessel that takes blood to the liver. Dye is then injected through the tube so that the blood vessels in the liver can be seen on an x-ray. Angiography can help a doctor tell whether the cancer is primary liver cancer or cancer that has spread from another part of the body. This test is usually done in the hospital.
Certain blood tests (such as alpha-fetoprotein, or AFP) may also help a doctor diagnose primary liver cancer.
The chance of recovery (prognosis) depend on the stage of the cancer (whether it is just in the liver or has spread to other places) and the patient's general state of health.
Stages of adult primary liver cancer :
Once adult primary liver cancer is found, more tests will be done to find out if the cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body (staging). The following stages are used for adult primary liver cancer:
Cancer is found only in one part of the liver, but the cancer cannot be totally removed.
Cancer has spread through much of the liver or to other parts of the body, name secondary cancer.
Recurrent disease means that the cancer has come back (recurred) after it has been operated. It may come back in the liver or in another part of the body.
Treatment by stage
Treatments for adult primary liver cancer depend on the stage of the disease the condition of the liver, and the patient's age and general health. Standard treatment may be considered, based on its effectiveness in patients in past studies, or participation into a clinical trial. Many patients are not cured with standard therapy, and some standard treatments may have more side effects than are desired.
ADVANCED ADULT PRIMARY LIVER CANCER
Treatment of advanced adult primary liver cancer depends on what treatment a patient has already received, the part of the body where the cancer has come back, whether the liver has cirrhosis, and other factors.
RECURRENT ADULT PRIMARY LIVER CANCER
Treatment of recurrent adult primary liver cancer depends on what treatment a patient has already received, the part of the body where the cancer has come back, whether the liver has cirrhosis, and other factors. Concultion our rates of treating liver cancer have reach a remarkable lever until not many western universities can belief.
Hepatocirrhosis(HC) is a chronic disease which afects the entire body. Its pathological features include degeneration,necrosis and regeneration of the hepatic cells; proliferation of hepatic fibrous tissue,and disturbance of the normal hipatic struture which lead to deformation and cirrhosis of the liver.Than the term HEPATOCIRRHOSIS is form.
This could be cure usually before the patient gets into coma. Usually it takes about 3weeks to 6 months to cure.
We have also ORGANIC HERBAL FARMING and futures, in the farm we will have some special bangalo for cancer and other incurable patients to recuperates, from our research we will get very high recovery rates.
Leukaemia and Acute leukaemia
Leukaemia, or blood cancer, is a disease of unknown cause where the bone marrow produces large numbers of abnormal cells. This means that the normal marrow is pushed into smaller and smaller areas, which results in fewer cells being produced and leads to some of the symptoms listed below.
There are many types of leukaemia and each of them is classified according to the exact cell type affected by the disease.
Chronic leukaemia is a slowly progressive form of leukaemia and tends to involve more mature cell types.
Acute leukaemia is rapidly progressive if not treated and involves more immature cells. It develops rapidly from the earliest forms of cells in the immature bone marrow cells (blasts). It requires urgent medical treatment but is generally responsive to chemotherapy.
Acute leukaemia is a rare disease that is more common in children and young people. However, their survival rate is better than in older people.
What are the symptoms of acute leukaemia?
Sudden appearance of symptoms.
Sudden pale or yellow complexion (anaemia).
Pain in the joints. When children are affected, this is sometimes mistaken for growing pains.
Repeated infections, such as throats, eyes, liver or others.
Acute leukaemia is also usually accompanied by nosebleeds and bruising easily, often without any kind of blow or fall.
Any of the above symptoms develop, it is advisable to consult a doctor. Parents are understandably afraid of leukaemia, but fortunately, the diagnosis often turns out to be something else entirely, as many other diseases have similar symptoms.
How is acute leukaemia diagnosed?
Many forms of leukaemia can be diagnosed by blood tests. Commonly, the acute leukaemia cell (blasts) can be seen circulating in the blood.
A bone marrow test will also be performed to diagnose the type of cells involved, as this can help doctors decide on the best choice of treatment.
Chronic leukaemia or blood cancer
What is chronic leukaemia?
Leukaemia (blood cancer) is a disease where the bone marrow produces large numbers of abnormal cells. This means that the normal marrow is pushed into smaller and smaller areas. This results in fewer normal cells being produced and gives rise to some of the symptoms.
There are many types of leukaemia, each of which is classified according to the exact cell type affected by the disease.
Chronic leukaemia is a slowly progressive form of leukaemia and tends to involve more mature cell types. It may not need treatment immediately, but if treatment is required it is usually chemotherapy, given in the form of tablets.
The cause of leukaemia is not known.
What are the symptoms of chronic leukaemia?
It is possible to have chronic leukaemia for months or even years without knowing it.
The symptoms are varied, but many people notice:
tiredness (Qi energy is very low inthe spleen and liver)
bruising easily (often without having had any blow or fall)
enlarged lymph glands
What is chronic lymphocytic leukaemia?
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the commonest type of leukaemia with 3000 to 4000 new cases diagnosed each year in the UK. It is a form of chronic leukaemia characterised by an increased number of lymphocytes in the blood.
It is rarely found in people under the age of 40 and is twice as common in men then in women. There are no obvious causes for CLL.
What are the symptoms of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia?
In addition to the symptoms mentioned above which are common to all forms of leukaemia, specific signs of the disease are:
painless enlargement of the lymph glands especially in the neck, armpits and groin.
lymph glands in deeper parts of the body may need special scans for diagnosis.
sometimes an enlarged spleen may cause discomfort or pain.
How is chronic lymphocytic leukaemia diagnosed?
Often the condition is diagnosed by chance when blood tests are being performed for other reasons.
Although a blood test may give doctors the diagnosis, a bone marrow test is usually done to confirm the diagnosis. Special tests are performed on these samples to help classify the leukaemia as this will influence the kind of treatment required. All comes to the same spleen and liver problems.
Cancer of the nasopharynxThe nasopharynx is the space within the skull that is above the palate (roof of the mouth) and behind the nose. It communicates at the front with the outside air, via the nostrils, and at the back with the cavity of the mouth and throat (oropharynx).
Cancer of the nasopharynx is rare in the UK more in the Asia area. It occurs when the normal cells that line this area change into malignant cancer cells. The type of cancer, or carcinoma, is classified according to the type of cell that undergoes the malignant change. Of these cancers, 90 per cent are of the squamous cell type. Other types are called adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and lymphoma.
Causes of nasopharynx
Nasopharynx is more common in Asia then other parts of the world. Even if these people emigrate to other countries they take this higher risk with them, passing it on to their children who will have a higher risk of developing the disease than the local non-Asia population. Another factor thought to be important in these Asian patients is their high dietary intake of salted fish and preserved food.
A risk factor is previous infection with the Epstein-Barr virus, which is the virus responsible for glandular fever. Patients with cancer of the nasopharynx show high levels of antibody to this virus in their blood, indicating previous infection. However, the exact role of this virus in causing this disease remains unclear but much suggested to be link with food.
Symptoms of cancer of the nasopharynxDespite the nasopharynx being a small confined area at the back of the nasal passages, patients often have advanced disease by the time they are diagnosed. The symptoms also are quite non-specific and are often put down to minor illnesses such as a 'cold'. The commonest symptoms are:
a blocked nose
deafness (particularly in one ear only)
a lump in the neck (a sign of spread of the cancer to the glands in the neck).
Other less common symptoms are:
problems with swallowing
The peak age group affected in Asian patients is in the 30s while in Caucasians it tends to occur in the 50s. Males are twice as likely as females to get this disease.
Gastro intestinal cancer
Gastrointestinal tract runs from the mouth to the anus, and includes the oesophagus (gullet), stomach, small bowel or intestine, and the large bowel (colon , rectum). Cancer can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, although, curiously, it is rare in the small intestine where most digestion takes place.
Bowel (colorectal) cancer is the second commonest cause of cancer-related death (after lung cancer), affecting 6 per cent of the population in Westernised (industrialised) countries and causing death in about 3 per cent. About 25 per cent of all deaths are caused by cancer in industrialised countries, and bowel cancer accounts for 12.5 per cent of those deaths.
Stomach cancer accounts for about 8 per cent of cancer deaths and occurs in twice as many men as women. It is gradually becoming less common but, sadly, this fall has been balanced by an increase in oesophageal cancer (particularly a glandular type called adenocarcinoma) in men.
Oesophageal cancer accounts for about 3 per cent of cancer deaths.
Cancer of the pancreas accounts for about 4 per cent of cancer deaths and affects both sexes approximately equally.
Cancer that develops first in the liver (primary liver cancer) is strongly linked with hepatitis virus infection. It is uncommon in Western countries where the rate of hepatitis is relatively low in Asia and Malaysia the rate is much higher, but is often the most common cause of cancer-related death in developing countries where hepatitis is much more frequent. Overall it accounts for only about 0.7 per cent of cancer deaths in Western countries. However, the liver is a common site for other gastrointestinal cancers to spread to(sencondary cancer ), particularly colorectal cancer, resulting in so-called secondary deposits or metastatic cancer.
|Lung Cancer Herbal Treatment|
Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both of the lungs. While normal lung tissue cells reproduce and develop into healthy lung tissue....
|Herbal Lung Cancer|
Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for up to 3 million deaths annually.
|Lung Cancer Acupuncture Treatment|
Cancer that forms in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air passages. The two main types are small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer.
|Herbal For Lung Cancer|